During the project period (2013-2015), existing testbed infrastructures in Europe and South Korea, already featuring WiFi nodes, wireless sensors and supporting WiMax, LTE and OpenFlow technologies, are going to be extended and federated.
The European testbeds that are associated with the SmartFIRE project compose of three different and heterogeneous islands. Two of these islands (the ones located at UMU and iMinds premises) belong to the OFELIA facility and will be enhanced to support the objectives set by the SmartFIRE project. The other island (located at UTH premises) is part of the OpenLab federation of testbeds.
The University of Thessaly offers to the project a heterogeneous wireless testbed called NITOS (Network Implementation Testbed using Open Source platforms). NITOS is the main wireless facility of the OneLab and the OpenLab infrastructure. The testbed consists of 80 powerful wireless nodes, each of them equipped with 2 WiFi interfaces, some of them being 802.11n MIMO cards and the rest 802.11a/b/g cards. Several nodes are equipped with USRP/GNU-radios, cameras and temperature/humidity sensors.
Fig. 1.8 depicts the topology of the first NITOS testbed as well as a portion of the nodes arranged into a grid topology. A second deployment is about to be delivered, consisting of an indoor testbed with three mobile nodes and 50 WiFi enabled nodes. Moreover, the testbed infrastructure of UTH is under the process of enhancing to a meso-scale wireless testbed based on a 3G/4G Base Station and a large number of clients.
Additionally, UTH features a wired infrastructure based on three OpenFlow switches. The wired and the wireless infrastructure are interconnected with each other. NITOS is managed and controlled though cOntrol and Management Framework (OMF) while the OpenFlow switches of the wired part will be programmed using the OpenFlow framework. The overall testbed is available for remote access to the research community, though the NITOS resource allocation scheduler.
The w-iLab.t testbed is a generic and heterogeneous wireless testbed. It consists of two sub testbeds: the w-iLab.t office and w-iLab.t Zwijnaarde. The w-iLab.t office is deployed in a real office environment while the testbed Zwijnaarde is located at a utility room. There is little external interference at the Zwijnaarde testbed as no regular human activity is present and most of its walls and ceiling are covered with metal as shown in Fig. 1.8. The majority of devices in w-iLab.t are embedded PCs equipped with Wi-Fi interfaces and sensor nodes. Since the Zwijnaarde testbed was deployed more recently, the devices in this testbed are more powerful in terms of processing power, memory and storage.
There are several types of wireless devices deployed: ZigBee sensors, bluetooth dongles, Wi-Fi based devices, sensing platforms and some software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. All devices are reachable over a wired interface for management purposes. Each device can be fully configured by the experimenters. When the wireless devices are configured via the same control interface, they are said to be attached to one “node”.
A typical node in w-iLab.t Zwijnaarde is shown in Fig. 1.10. It consists of an embedded PC with two WI-FI interfaces and one Zigbee sensor. The node topology is indicated with circles in Fig. 1.11. One of the deployed Software Defined Radio (SDR) platforms is the USRP (Universal Serial Radio Peripheral) N210. The USRP’s are attached to powerful quad-core servers instead of embedded PC’s. There are 60 nodes installed in the Zwijnaarde testbed, among which 6 are USRP’s.
The w-iLab.t Zwijnaarde has adopted OMF as its testbed control and management framework. OMF allows experimenters to describe their experiments systematically and provides easy data logging services and the ability to configure multiple devices in one experiment instance.
GAIA is the main research and experimentation infrastructure of the UMU. It comprises several network nodes interconnected with different technologies. On the one hand, they are connected to the campus network through Gigabit Ethernet switches and thus they form the point of attachment to the Internet. On the other hand, they are connected to a CWDM network, which acts as backbone/carrier network and can be adapted to different configurations, depending on the specific requirements of each experiment. This forms the core of the GAIA infrastructure.
Apart from the resources described above, GAIA has a wide wireless and WiMAX deployment along the campus. This, together with other smaller wireless deployments, allows the experimentation with many local and wide-range wireless technologies, including mobility and vehicle (V2V) communications.
As an extension to the GAIA testbed, the UMU has deployed an Internet of Things (IoT) network comprising several sensors and other smart devices. It currently has a weather station, parking spots, air- quality sensors, etc. Moreover, at the Fuente Alamo Technology Park (FATP), the UMU has a building dedicated to research and experimentation in building automation, including several multiprotocol cards specially developed by our team for such purposes.
Finally, GAIA is connected to the PASITO network, the Spanish version of FEDERICA, which permits direct reachability (L2 VPN) to many other organizations from the Spanish NREN.
On top of the core infrastructure, as detailed below, the UMU is preparing the deployment of several virtual networks with support for OpenFlow for SDN research and experimentation. This deployment will also cover wireless, WiMAX, and other available networking technologies in order to provide a wide spectrum of possibilities to the experimentation facility.
To facilitate the integration of its experimentation infrastructure with the other ones, the UMU will deploy interfaces to OMF and NEPI, which are well-known experiment control and measurement frameworks. They will also facilitate the collaboration with other FIRE initiatives.
South Korean testbeds
South Korean partners, already operate testbeds that primarily target at OpenFlow experimentation. Their conducted research has already been adopted in the South Korean research networks (such as KOREN/KREONET) and is a part of their national research network infrastructure.
The Korean consortium comprises of five different partners, each of them expert on their research field: Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) and Seoul National University (SNU).
GIST offers the aggregated OpenFlow island, OF@TEIN, which aggregates 7 SmartX Racks, internationally located over 7 international sites. In OF@TEIN testbed, similar to GENI  Racks, a unique SmartX Rack is designed and deployed to promote the international SDN research collaboration over TEIN network infrastructure. As shown in Fig. 1.1, it features an OpenFlow-enabled SDN testbed over 7 international sites (Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, and two in Korea) with following detailed goals: Design and verification of SmartX Rack (with domestic-vendor OpenFlow switch), Site installation and verification of OF@TEIN network, and Design and development of OF@TEIN SDN tools. This new OF@TEIN testbed is controlled by the OFELIA Control Framework (OCF) and expected to be in production by March 2013.
For OF@TEIN testbed, GIST features two types of SmartX Rack Type A and Type B (depicted in Fig. 1.2) to provide slightly varying combinations of computing/networking resources. Especially, OpenFlow switches are linked with the L2-GRE tunneling of Narinet/NF/OVS Capsulators and effective remote power management is enabled with a web-based interface. Also, we verified the key functionalities of SmartX Rack internally and with 3rd-party verification service.
GIST also offers to the project a heterogeneous wireless testbed called SIGMA, shown in Fig. 1.3. SIGMA is an OpenFlow-enabled wireless testbed with 20 wireless nodes, each of them equipped with VIA Eden 1.0 Ghz processor and 2 Atheros-chipset-based WiFi (802.11a/b/g) interfaces. This wireless testbed is fully compatible with the cOntrol and Management Framework (OMF) and equipped with several monitoring tools (e.g., PaPMo, ObSerV).
KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information) offers to the project an emulation based network testbed in the KREONET/GLORIAD domain. It is called KREONET-Emulab where network protocols and their performance can be easily tested and evaluated. Many network protocols, which cannot perform over KREONET due to unexpected hazard, can be freely tested in KREONET Emulab.
Figure 1.4 depicts the current KREONET Emulab facility. KREONET Emulab consists of 42 Dell R710 servers, each of them equipped with 5 network interfaces, one for the control and four for the experiments. So, a node can work as a router with 4 paths, and each network interface can be configured upto 1 Gbps. Utah Emulab software was installed for allocating systems and configuring network topology. KREONET Emulab provides two operating systems (FreeBSD 8.2 and Centos 5.5) and users can select one of them. Users can run any untried and untested experiments with several dozen systems and preferred network topology.
Additionally, KREONET Emulab locates in the KREONET/GLORIAD domain, but users can connect to it through Internet without any restriction. However, for the purpose of the federation with high quality network, interconnection should go through KREONET/GLORIAD or KOREN/TEIN for the international network.
An outcome of the long-timed research conducted at ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute) is MOFI (Mobile Oriented Future Internet). MOFI is an Identity network for Future Internet supporting mobile intrinsic environment. Additionally, ETRI has developed an OpenFlow based mobility testbed for the evaluation of MOFI architecture. The mobility testbed is an aggregation island, as it provides interconnections to three major S. Korean domain networks through KOREN at ETRI, KNU (Kyungpook National University), and CNU (Chungnam National University) respectively. Each of these domain networks was designed for an HID (Host Identifier) based communication network. This domain network has been deployed by means of OpenFlow technology, utilizing the NOX controller software and a Click-based OpenFlow switch. A special feature in integrating these three domains is MOFI’s control system named DDMS (Dynamic Distributed Mapping System), which is working on the border gateway (GW) of the domain network.
Fig. 1.5 shows MOFI testbed comprised of three interconnected domain networks through the KOREN research network. MOFI’s network domain consists of three components: the Access Router (AR), MOFI Gateway (GW), and the NOX controller. These components have been deployed using OpenFlow technologies, thus implementing MOFI’s control and data plane. Each one of the MOFI’s gateways feature 1Gbps links for the interconnection of the three domains.
As a result of the research on content delivery framework with SDN, SNU (Seoul National University) proposed the C-flow. C-flow is the architecture for efficient content delivery with OpenFlow. Since creating an environment for effective content delivery under real conditions can become very frustrating, C-flow cope with this problem very well. It provides functionalities for caching contents at cache servers/caches collocated with switches, and for retrieving them.
Additionally, SNU has developed and operates the c-flow testbed which is consists of C-flow switches and a controller for flow management. Each c-flow switch is developed over OVS (Open Virtual Switch) and the controller is implemented based on the NOX. The following Fig.1.6 depicts that the testbed is an island, which is interconnected to the content server at SNU through KOREN and SNU autonomous system.
The WMN testbed located at KAIST is a programmable testbed for experimental protocol design. It is located at the campus of the KAIST University and it consists of 56 mesh routers, 16 of them being deployed indoors and 40 outdoors, each of them equipped with three IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WiFi cards. Moreover, 50 sensor nodes are deployed at the premises of the KAIST University.
The operating system that is running on their wireless nodes is a virtualized UNIX based, which is running several VMs over a common MadWiFi open source driver. Finally, KAIST operates a WiMax deployment too, with two WiMax Base stations located at KAIST University, aiming at mobility experiments.